A Hoax-Slayer Knowledge Guide
Advance Fee Scams - Nigerian Scams - 419 Scam Information
Advance fee scams, also commonly known as "Nigerian" scams, have been around in various forms for decades. In fact, they predate the Internet and email. Nigerian scammers still use surface mail
and faxes as well as email and social media.
scams are also called "419 scams" after the appropriate part of
the Nigerian criminal code.
Although many still originate from Nigeria - hence the
generic term "Nigerian scam" - it is certainly not only Nigerian
based criminals that send them. In spite of the longevity of
this type of scam and the large amount of publicity that it has
received, many people around the world are still being conned out
of substantial sums of money. I regularly receive enquiries from
Internet users who have received Nigerian scam messages and do not
know what they are about. There are a great many versions of
The scam works like this. You receive an unsolicited
message that masquerades as some manner of business proposition,
request for assistance, notice of a potential inheritance, or
opportunity to help a charity. In fact, there is a seemingly
endless array of cover stories that the scammers use in order to
draw potential victims into the con. In spite of this diversity,
virtually all of the scam messages share a common theme. The
messages all claim that your help is needed to access a large sum
of money, usually many millions of dollars.
The scammers use a variety of stories to explain why they need
your help to access the funds.
The messages offer to let you keep a significant percentage of
the funds in exchange for your assistance. This
percentage is the bait that the scammers use to entice potential
victims deeper into the scam. Once a recipient has taken the bait,
and initiated a dialogue with the scammers, he or she will soon
receive requests for "fees" that the scammer claims are necessary
for processing costs, tax and legal fees, or bribes to local
- They may claim that political climate or legal issues
preclude them from accessing funds in a foreign bank account and request your help to gain such access.
- They may claim that your last name is the same as that of the
deceased person who owned an account and suggest that you act as
the Next of Kin of this person in order to gain access to the
- They may claim that a rich businessman, who has a terminal
illness, needs your help to distribute his wealth to charity.
- They may claim that a soldier stationed overseas has discovered a cache of hidden cash left by a fleeing dictator and needs your help to get the money out of the country.
The scammers will warn the victim that these advance fees need to
be paid before the funds can be procured. In reality, the
supposed funds do not exist. The major purpose of these scam
messages is to trick recipients into parting with their money in
the form of these advance fees. Fraudulent requests for fees will
usually continue until the victim realizes he or she is being
conned and stops sending money. In some cases, the scammers gain
enough information to access the victim's bank account directly
or steal the victim's identity.
An alternative type of advance fee scam, discussed separately on another Hoax-Slayer page, uses messages claiming that recipients have won a large sum of money in an international lottery.
Victims are asked to send advance fees and personal information, ostensibly to allow the prize funds to be processed and sent to the winner. In reality, there is no prize.
Typically, advance fee scammers will send many thousands of identical scam messages to email recipients all around the world. It only takes a few recipients to fall for the claims in the messages to make the operation pay off for the criminals.
What To Do If You Receive an Advance Fee Scam Message
If you receive one of these scam emails, it is important that you do not respond to it in any way.
The scammers are likely to act upon any response from those they see as potential victims. Although it can be educational and even entertaining to "bait" advance fee scammers, such endeavours should only be attempted under controlled conditions. These scammers are unscrupulous and unpredictable criminals. There have been violent attacks, abductions and even murders associated with advance fee Nigerian scams and the criminals that run them should not be trifled with. The best thing to do with these scam messages is to simply delete them.
What To Do If You Have Submitted Information to Advance Fee Scammers
If you have supplied banking and credit card details, personal information, and/or copies of identity documents such as your driver's licence and passport to the scammers, then you could become a victim of identity theft. For details on what to do, read the information about identity theft published by the Federal Trade Commission (US), ScamWatch, (Australia) or ActionFraud (UK).
What To Do If You Have Already Given Money To Advance Fee Scammers
Unfortunately, there is probably very little you can do to recover any money you have already sent. The first step is to cease all communication with the scammers and do not, under any circumstances, send them any more money or information. It is not uncommon for advance fee scam victims to fall into an escalation of commitment trap and continue to send money to the scammers even after they have been told they are being conned. This is because victims can become desperate and are unwilling to let go of the vain hope that the scheme that they are involved in is legitimate after all and that they will eventually get their promised windfall.
If you have sent money to scammers, you should inform your local law enforcement agency as soon as possible. Also, take steps to protect your identity by accessing information about identity theft published by the Federal Trade Commission (US), ScamWatch, (Australia) or ActionFraud (UK).
View more Advance Fee Scam examples
Advance Fee Scam Examples
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